Variations on this basic cite are modelled below. Note that a complete citation is needed for the first reference you make to any item as with model footnote 1 ; a shortened cite as with model footnote 2 can be used thereafter. Use this model for books available online only if they appear exactly as they did in print i.
Remember that the purpose of a footnote is to make it easy for readers to find the item you used. If the paper source and the online source look exactly the same as would be the case in a photocopy, for instance , the details above will be most helpful for your readers.
If the book has been reformatted in any way, your readers will need the URL and other information according to the model below. Lynn Hunt et al. Peoples and Cultures Boston: Bedford, , Broadway Books, , University of Georgia Press, , Tonino Guerra, Abandoned Places , trans.
Guernica, , A History , 5th ed. Harlan Davidson, , McPherson, Ordeal by Fire , vol. McGraw-Hill, , For a separately titled volume, see model footnote 10; for volumes without individual titles as with model footnote 11 , provide the volume number with the pagination. Note that the cite to III: Diplomatic Papers, Washington, DC: GPO, , With rare exceptions, print encyclopedias and other reference books follow the models already provided for citing books. See models for edited works , or multivolume works above, for instance.
Use those models for reference works available online only if they appear exactly as they did in print i. Remember that your goal is to make it easy for readers to find the item you used. If the book has been reformatted in any way, your readers will need the URL and other information as provided in the models below. Dictionaries and a few widely recognized reference sources are cited as follows "s.
Encyclopaedia Britannica , 15th ed. For the Bible model footnote 15 , provide the book, followed by chapter and verse i. For the Koran, provide sura and verse i. Use this model for scholarly articles you have read online only if the article appears exactly as it did in print -- as with articles in JSTOR.
If the article has been reformatted in any way, provide URL and other information according to the model footnotes below. Nancy Gabin, review of The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishment , by Susan M. Hartman, Journal of Women's History 12, no. Use this model for articles you have read online only if they appear exactly as they did in print i. If the article has been reformatted in any way, provide URL and other information according to the model below.
When the author of an article is unknown, begin with the article title. Provide page and section numbers as the newspaper does i. A1 means page 1 of section A. Nina Baym, shorter 6th ed. Norton, , Thomas Gainsborough to Elizabeth Rasse, 13 Oct. John Hayes New Haven: Yale University Press, , 5. For a short story or article, follow model footnote 22; for a letter, follow model footnote For citing a letter you've read in an archive, see below. Heinz Kramer, A Changing Turkey: Brookings Press, , 85, http: Use this model when the book has been reformatted in some way from the original printed copies.
If the book appears exactly as it did in print i. Provide as much of the following as is available: Use this model for articles that originally appeared in print but that you found reformated online. If the article was published directly to the web, use the model found below. If the reference work appears exactly as it did in print i.
To the extent possible, combine the information you would have provided for the primary source in its original form as a book or letter , for instance plus identifying information for the online version of it.
As a general rule, provide 1 author's name, 2 title of the original work, 3 date of original work, 4 "excerpted" or "translated" as appropriate, 5 title of the site, 6 sponsor of the site, 7 stable URL if provided and if it can be conveniently transcribed or the website's homepage or search page if a stable URL is not provided or is very long , 8 date on which you accessed the page, 9 page or paragraph number.
The Merchants of Cool , http: Provide as many of the following elements as are available: When no author is named, treat the site's sponsor as the author. Joseph Adkinson, letter to Irvin Adkinson, 10 Feb.
Throughout the first half of the novel, Strether has grown increasingly open and at ease in Europe; this quotation demonstrates openness and ease. If there are two or three authors of the source, include their full names in the order they appear on the source. Smith, Tim Sampson, and Alex J. Hubbard, Example Book New York: Scholastic, , You may want to include other contributor information in your footnotes such as editor, translator, or compiler.
If there is more than one of any given contributor, include their full names in the order they appear on the source. John Smith, Example Book , trans. Random House, , John Smith, Example Book , ed. Tim Thomas New York: Simply omit the unknown information and continue with the footnote as usual.
When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page or section identifier. This can include specific pages, sections, or volumes. If page numbers cannot be referenced, simply exclude them. Below are different templates:. John Smith, vol 2. Appleton, , Work from to Present , ed.
SAMPLE CHICAGO STYLE PAPER John Doe History Dr. Johnson July 11, Doe 1 There are two types of notes that can be used in a Chicago Style paper: footnotes or endnotes. Footnotes are notes that are cited at the bottom—footer part—of the page.
The Chicago Style of writing is often required for history papers, although this style is also called Turabian Style when referring to research papers. Papers written in Chicago or Turabian style usually contain footnotes or end notes. The notes can contain additional content, acknowledgments.
Chicago/Turabian Basics: Footnotes Why We Use Footnotes The style of Chicago/Turabian we use requires footnotes rather than in-text or parenthetical citations. Footnotes or endnotes acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the author’s name, publication title, publication information, date of publication, [ ]. SAMPLE CHICAGO STYLE PAPER John Doe History Dr. Johnson July 11, Doe 1 The Chicago Style of writing is used for academic writing in the field of Humanities, paper: footnotes or endnotes. Footnotes are notes that are cited at the bottom—footer part—of the page.
[SAMPLE OF A PAPER USING FOOTNOTES] James Henry Breasted: Pioneer in the Study of Ancient Egyptian History Ima Soporific Prof. Piccione History the purpose of this paper is to place (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, ). Footnotes – Chicago Bibliography In Chicago style, footnotes or endnotes are used to reference pieces of work in the text. To cite from a source a superscript number is placed after a .