Continuous inverse optimal control with locally optimal examples. APA does not address what to do with conference papers found in library databases. We suggest that, following the guidelines given for periodical articles, that you use, "Retrieved from" followed by the URL of either the conference itself or the sponsoring organization, located via Google.
Concerted effort needed to consolidate and secure Internet connections at federal agencies Publication No. Sounding the spirit of Cambodia: The living tradition of Khmer music and dance-drama in a Washington, DC community Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from Dissertations and Theses database. Conquering the cold shudder: The origin and evolution of snake eyes Doctoral dissertation.
Life and death in Washington DC: An analysis of the Mortality Census data of Master's thesis. Data pruning Master's thesis. The ship in the storm [Painting]. By Claire Fresches et al. National Gallery of Art. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Eadweard Muybridge and the technological wild West. Why it's time to forget the pecking order at work [video file]. APA does not require that you cite personal communications interviews you've conducted, e-mail messages, etc.
Instead, give an in-text citation only using the following model:. Joe Smith personal communication, November 18, informed me that the server had crashed several hours ago.
Student Login Faculty Login. Use only the date or date and page number. An online article with no page numbers. Citing multiple authors See Authors , below. Authors Publication Manual, pp. Reference List Citation Example: In-Text Citation Courtois, C. In-Text Citation Kelley, P. In-Text Citation Hughes, J. Six or seven authors Example: In-Text Citation Phelps, B. Eight or more authors Example: In-Text Citation Carter, A. In-Text Citation None to claim their bones: Titles Publication Manual, pp.
Titles are italicized for the following items: Book title Student cheating and plagiarism in the Internet era: Source Example Magazine and journal volume and issue number formatting 12 4 12 is the volume number in italics and 4 is the issue number.
Page Numbers Publication Manual, pp. Online periodical where page numbers are not given National Geographic, 2. Follow the issue number of the magazine or journal with a period. Undated Sources Publication Manual, p. Citing a Source within a Source Publication Manual, p. Free Web Giancola, P.
More info In-text citation examples General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc. Free Web Springen, K. Free Web Gelb, N. When an issue of a magazine covers several months, the name of the first and last month in the range should be given in the citation, separated by a dash, for example: Newspapers Publication Manual, pp. Free Web Foreman, J. Encyclopedia Articles Publication Manual, p. Free Web Cohen, P. Top Books Publication Manual, pp.
Edited book Miller, J. For a single editor, use " Ed. Books where the author and publisher are the same American Psychological Association. Numbered edition other than the first Arking, R. Revised edition Culliney, J. Multi-volume set Green, C.
Chapter or article in an anthology Eliot, T. Original work published Note that the page numbers of an article or chapter are preceded by "pp. Cities, States and Countries: Foreign cities should be followed by the name of their country ex. Separate place of publication from publisher with a colon for example " New York, NY: If more than one city is given, list only the first.
Top E-Books Style Guide, pp. Use these URLs for library e-book databases: Free Web Seton, E. Coffee helps students stay awake to study Lee, as cited in Brown, The writer wishes to use a quote from Parker who was also quoted on page 5 within an article by Miles What is an In-Text Citation?
All in-text citations require the same basic information: There are two main ways to format an in-text citation. Put all the citation information at the end of the sentence: Include some of the citation information as part of the sentence: Each source cited in-text must also be listed in your References list.
However, there are two exceptions to this rule: These types of sources should be cited by in-text citations only. Citing Paraphrases or Summaries. If your text does not include an author, include the web page or article title within quotation marks " ": The formats provided here are typical, but may vary in different publications depending on their particular needs and practices.
Some basic rules applicable to all formats indexed by author name s: The role of estrogen in mouse xxxx courtship behavior changes as mice age. J Physiol 62 6: Mouse xxxx Mus musculus as a dietary alternative for humans.
J Nutrition 33 6: Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship behavior. J Physiol 40 2: Physiological effects of estrogen analogs: Insincere courtship xxxx behavior in female mice. J Physiol 40 8: Each model is shown as the full citation plus the in-text citation format. Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship Bugjuice OR Bugjuice The role of whisker length in mouse J Physiol 61 3: The role of estrogen in J Physiol 2 6: Author s Unknown or Not Named.
If the authorship of a paper or other document is not provided, cite the author using the word "Anonymous" in the place of the authors name s. A Survival Guide for College Students Anonymous OR Anonymous Behavior patterns of mice. Scientific format and style: The CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers.
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APA Citation Guide: In-Text Citations (How to Cite Within your Paper) Learn the intricacies of APA Citation Style. APA is the citation style used by the Health Professions, Sciences, and Social Sciences.
Citing a source within your research paper is crucial, in that it strengthens the credibility of your writing and lets you avoid being accused of plagiarizing.
If the same author(s) are cited for two or more papers published within the same year, place a small case letter after the year to denote the sequence in which you referred to them. For example: Bugjuice, B. a. Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship behavior. In the citation of Bugjuice's paper, note the following. An in-text citation is a citation within your writing that shows where you found your information, facts, quotes, and research. All in-text citations require the same basic information: All in-text citations require the same basic information.
If your research paper includes a source that you cannot locate, you may have no choice but to reference it as discussed in a secondary source. When citing a reference within a reference in American Psychological Association style, the rules are different for an in-text citation versus a citation on a references list. Basic In-Text Citation Rules In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase.