Indeed, legal professionals, such as law enforcement officers and judges, are charged with the task of identifying diverse forms of deception, including highly consequential displays, such as those performed by persons suspected of serious crimes. Fortunately, a number of reliable indicators of deception, particularly those that may present in high-stakes situations, have been identified.
Further, various strategies to discern sincerity are available to investigators, including the polygraph test, behavioral analyses, and other specific interrogative approaches. Conversely, police officers use deception to gain valuable information from suspects. Experts have developed a variety of theories to describe the characteristics of deceptive behavior e. Deception in the Legal System The motivational impairment effect theory proposes that liars who are highly motivated to successfully deceive others provide more observable clues to their deceit and subsequently are more likely to be caught in their lie.
According to proponents of the motivational impairment effect, attempts to monitor various communication channels e. However, high-stakes emotional lies may not be more readily detected, due in part to reliance on common pitfalls in deception detection. Common Pitfalls Despite the potential rich source of information provided by the high-stakes, emotional deceiver, criminal justice professionals e. This low accuracy rate may be due, in part, to the tendency of individuals attempting to evaluate deceptiveness within the legal system to be led astray by relying on stereotypes, including cues that either have yet to be empirically validated or have been dispelled as being indicators of deception.
Nervousness and fidgeting are other stereotypical behaviors often wrongly considered to accompany deceptiveness. The reliance on these unsupported cues by legal professionals likely contributes to their poor rate of accuracy when detecting deception.
This pattern has been seen not only with laypeople but also with professional lie detectors within the legal system, such as police officers. Further, overconfidence often leads to tunnel vision—a dangerous bias that can cause legal professionals to overlook important facts including exonerating evidence.
Natural biases also may play a role in the inability to accurately detect deception. For example, laypeople typically hold a truth bias the tendency to perceive others as truthful more often than not , whereas law enforcement officers may hold a deception bias the tendency to perceive others as deceptive more often than not.
As such, there are a variety of factors that may lead a lie detector astray and that likely lead to poor detection rates. There are three main communication channels i. Facial expressions, in particular, are a valuable source of emotional information because of the strong connections between facial muscles and areas in the brain that are responsible for the processing of emotion.
Charles Darwin was one of the first to study this intimate facial muscle-brain connection and proposed the two-part inhibition hypothesis. He surmised that individuals cannot fully simulate facial muscles associated with a particular emotional facial expression without genuinely feeling that emotion e.
On the other hand, individuals cannot completely suppress activation of facial muscles associated with a particular emotion they are genuinely feeling e. These phenomena result in deceptive displays that include either incomplete facial expressions e. As such, the face is a valuable channel of emotional information during deception detection.
Additionally, particular body language cues have been identified as being associated with deception in high-stakes situations. For example, liars focused on appearing sincere likely avoid stereotypical behavior considered by many people to be indicative of deceptive behavior, such as gaze aversion and fidgeting. As such, in an attempt to look less deceptive liars may overcompensate by maintaining eye contact for an unnatural length of time and overly restrict their body movement.
Further, during everyday interactions people typically accompany their speech with illustrators i. High-stakes deception also has been associated with particular linguistic characteristics.
As with behavioral changes, the increase in cognitive load may result in the liar using fewer words, a slower rate of speech, longer pauses between words, and more frequent hesitations.
Further, liars may provide fewer contextual details and fewer reproduced conversations in order to better remember the lie so that they are able to repeat the lie consistently during subsequent reproductions. As such, individuals charged with assessing the veracity of a potentially deceptive target can look to linguistic cues during their evaluation. One of the most influential theories of deception within law enforcement involves the effects of emotional arousal. The theory behind the emotional arousal hypothesis is that the deceiver, relative to the truth-teller, will experience particular emotions resulting in heightened arousal that manifests as psycho physiological changes.
Heightened emotional arousal as a result of deception is the basis for the polygraph—a technique that currently is employed by law enforcement worldwide. The physiological measures of interest include blood pressure, heart rate, electro dermal activity perspiration on the skin , and respiration.
Polygraph results are evaluated by subjectively comparing question type with the physiological response exhibited by the suspect. The polygraph operates on the assumption that individuals will demonstrate significant changes from baseline arousal when responding to questions deceptively, relative to responding honestly. There are a number of different approaches to questioning during a polygraph test, such as the control question technique and guilty knowledge test.
Investigators employing the control question technique use neutral e. Precious resources in the form of man power, money, time and equipment can be wasted because of the failure of the interviewer to conduct a complete interview and accurately evaluate the credibility of the information gained from the subject interviewed.
The interview can also provide understanding of and give a clear definition to the evidence isolated by the forensic investigation of the case. In spite of its importance however, the value of the interview alone can be nil without the psychological and forensic pillars. By the same token a poorly executed interview along with a flawed effort to assess credibility can degrade if not destroy the efforts in the forensic and psychological portions of the investigation and any subsequent prosecution.
A complete and successful interview will almost always be characterized by four basic elements: In its own way, each of these four elements is unique and accomplishes specific goals. Without all four elements no interview will be complete. Orientation is accomplished on both an overt and covert level.
Overtly the function of the orientation period is to establish some form of dialogue with the subject being interviewed. This can be achieved through personal introductions and possibly some form of brief light conversation if conditions and time permit.
It is also the period during which the interviewer advises the subject as to the purpose of the interview, its importance, and the necessity to be totally forthcoming, honest and cooperative. Granted in many cases this is not going to be a socially comfortable situation nor will it always intended to be so.
Deception in Shakespeare's Othello Essay Words | 7 Pages. Deception in Shakespeare's Othello Deception, which by its definition is a bad thing and has only one level or .
Free deception papers, essays, and research papers. The Deception of the World in Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby" - The world as we know it today is as full of lies as a high school swimming pool has water.
Jun 08, · 1. Essay on Deception marketing chapter 1 vocab partner is lying. By being so over confident about the thought of knowing your partner so well, this provides an opportunity for deception and dishonesty. Whilst intimacy comes with its rewards . Essay title: Deception. Deception. Whether conducted by the patrol officer, the victim’s advocate, the prosecutor or the investigator assigned to a special unit in the criminal investigation division, the interview of a victim, witness, suspect or informant is a critical element of any investigation/5(1).
Deception Essay - Deception Whether conducted by the patrol officer, the victim’s advocate, the prosecutor or the investigator assigned to a special unit in the criminal investigation division, the interview of a victim, witness, suspect or informant is a critical element of any investigation. Deception includes several types of communications or omissions that serve to distort or omit the complete truth. Deception itself is intentionally managing verbal and/or nonverbal messages so that the message receiver will believe in a way that the message sender knows is false.